A funny thing happened at Sloans & Kenyon’s July Estate Catalogue auction, July 21, 2018

For the foreseeable future, I will publish once a week on Monday.


Sloans & Kenyon, Chevy Chase, Maryland, held a July Estate Catalogue auction this past weekend, July 20-21, 2018. Included in the sale were several very nice Tiffany Favrile vases that for some strange reason were catalogued as follows “This vase is not being sold as authentic Tiffany.” I called to find out why and was told by the house expert that she had shown the vases to several dealers and they had their doubts about their authenticity. But guess what? They didn’t ask me. The vases were 100% authentic, so I was able to buy them for relatively bargain prices.

Tiffany Favrile vase, Sloans & Kenyon lot #1199

Lot #1199 was sold with an estimate of $100 – $200, a ridiculously low estimate for a 10″ authentic Tiffany Favrile vase, but not a reproduction, as Sloans & Kenyon assumed. I was the winning bidder with a bid of $478, including buyer’s premium.

Tiffany Favrile decorated vase, Sloans & Kenyon lot #1200

The next lot, #1200, was an even better deal. At 14¾”, it had an elegant shape with beautiful decoration. It too had a very low estimate of $200 – $250. I bought it for $836.50, including buyer’s premium. Bargain #2.

The third lot was a lovely 19½” Jack-in-the-Pulpit vase. I already had a beautiful example for sale, but at the right price I needed a second one. $5,975 was the right price, so I bought it too.

Tiffany Favrile Jack-in-the-Pulpit vase, Sloans & Kenyon lot #1201

All of the vases are for sale. You can buy them all at very fair prices.

And a note to Sloans & Kenyon. My services are available to authenticate and appraise glass and lamps. I already am the paid consultant to several major auction houses.


The Baltimore Art, Antique & Jewelry Show is now only five weeks away, at the end of the summer, August 30 – September 2, 2018. We were forced to give up shows like Denver. Unfortunately the Baltimore show promoter has moved the show one week later than usual, to the Labor Day weekend. The show used to be held over the Labor Day weekend, but that was many years ago. The show is wonderful, so we’ll continue to exhibit there regardless of the change of dates.

We’re still very much in business between shows, so please don’t hesitate to email or call. I recently listed some of the new items on my website and will list more every week. Click Philip Chasen Antiques to take a look. I will make every effort to actively list new items as often as time permits. I always strive to offer the finest objects for sale on my website and at every show. There are many items for sale, sold items with prices and free lessons about glass and lamps. And remember to keep reading my blog.

A Tiffany Studios lantern was sold on eBay for $12,323 on May 9, 2018

For the foreseeable future, I will publish once a week on Monday.


Tiffany Studios Turtleback Tile lantern, eBay #302721920597

On May 9, 2018, a Tiffany Turtleback Tile lantern that started at 99¢ sold for $12,323 on eBay? What’s up with that? Let’s start from the beginning.

The title for the sale of item #302721920597, Rare Tiffany Studios Favrile Glass Turtleback Tile Arts & Crafts Lantern Lamp, was accurate. If you were knowledgeable, you would know that. But there are so many reproductions and bogus items for sale on eBay that if you weren’t an expert, you were taking your life into your own hands. I knew it was correct, so I bid up to $8,650 — not enough to win the item.

It had a few problems. 1. It wasn’t signed (but lanterns like this are never signed). 2. The glass in the lower door panel was cracked. 3. The original socket was missing. 4. The chain and ceiling cap were missing. 5. The turtlebacks were gold (green are more desirable). These are all problems that a Tiffany dealer could solve, but not most individuals.

This Tiffany Turtleback Tile lantern sold at Sotheby’s in December, 2016

A similar lantern was sold at auction in NYC at Sotheby’s on December 14, 2016, for $20,000, including buyer’s premium. That green example had no problems.

All you need for a successful auction is two bidders. This item had 24 bids from several bidders. After my bid of $8,650, the bidding jumped in the final minute to $12,223 and then the final bid of $12,323. That’s a technique that smart eBay bidders use to avoid a reply bid. Time runs out and the auction is over. That’s contrary to the ethos of standard auctions which continue the bidding until the last man standing is the highest bidder. Some electronic auctions extend the bidding by a few minutes if there is bidding at the end, but not eBay. They are set in their ways. I suggested to them years ago to change their format, but they weren’t interested. I think there should be an option for sellers to allow extending the auction if there is bidding in the last five minutes. There is no downside for either eBay or the seller, only upside. Auctions should go to the highest bidder, not the one with the fastest trigger finger.

So did the buyer on eBay get the lantern at a good price? I think so, especially if the buyer can take care of its problems. And now you know the rest of the story. (Read that last sentence slowly and with emphasis, as Paul Harvey did in his national radio broadcast.)


No shows until the Baltimore Art, Antique & Jewelry Show at the end of the summer, August 30 – September 2, 2018, as we were forced to give up shows like Denver. Unfortunately the Baltimore show promoter has moved the show one week later than usual, to the Labor Day weekend. The show used to be held over the Labor Day weekend, but that was many years ago. The show is wonderful, so we’ll continue to exhibit there regardless of the change of dates.

We’re still very much in business between shows, so please don’t hesitate to email or call. I recently listed some of the new items on my website and will list more every week. Click Philip Chasen Antiques to take a look. I will make every effort to actively list new items as often as time permits. I always strive to offer the finest objects for sale on my website and at every show. There are many items for sale, sold items with prices and free lessons about glass and lamps. And remember to keep reading my blog.

Mixed results at Morphy Auctions first Lamps, Glass & Jewelry auction, June 20-21, 2018

For the foreseeable future, I will publish once a week on Monday.


James D. Julia, Inc., now a division of Morphy Auctions, held a Lamps, Glass & Jewelry auction on June 20-21, 2018 with approximate total sales of $2.8 million. The first day focused on silver and jewelry, with some strong results. The second day was dedicated to glass and lamps, with mixed strong and soft results. Today’s post will only focus on the lamps and glass.

Monumental Gallé Clematis table lamp, Morphy lot #752

The top lot of the entire sale was #752, a magnificent, enormous Emile Gallé Clematis table lamp. It was an example of the largest Gallé lamp known to exist, 31″ tall x 20½” diameter. To make sure the lot sold, the consignor lowered the reserve to half the low estimate of $120,000, or $60,000. I bid $60,000 to open the lot, but then dropped out. The bidding continued long after I was out. The lamp sold for $184,500, including buyer’s premium, against a pre-sale estimate of $120,000 – $150,000. It wasn’t too surprising considering another Gallé lamp of the same size and shape, but with Wisteria decoration, sold at Christie’s New York in June of 2017 for $331,500. The consignor at Morphy’s sale was very nervous prior to the sale and ebullient after the sale.

Tiffany Turtleback lantern

The top lot of the Tiffany lamps was a Turtleback lantern, not a table lamp. It sold as lot #802 for $67,650, including buyer’s premium, against a pre-sale estimate of $25,000 – $35,000.

Thomas Webb & Sons Alligator perfume bottle, Morphy lot #909

The most unexpected result of the sale was for lot #909, a rare glass alligator perfume bottle in its original box. Bidding started online at $400 and continued for 77 bids until it was finally sold in the auction room for the astonishing price of $67,200, against a pre-sale estimate of $800 – $1,500. Apparently it was a very rare bottle by Thomas Webb & Sons, pictured in some obscure literature, but never seen in person. The sale was winding down after selling over 900 lots when the excitement started. It sold just a few lots short of the end of the sale at lot #926. Nobody in the room was expecting that kind of action so late in the sale. Morphy’s didn’t know what they had, so they just catalogued it as a rare alligator bottle, with no known attribution. At least two bidders knew what it was and that’s all it took for a fantastic result.

For the complete results of both days of the sale, click here.


No shows until the Baltimore Art, Antique & Jewelry Show at the end of the summer, August 30 – September 2, 2018, as we were forced to give up shows like Denver. Unfortunately the Baltimore show promoter has moved the show one week later than usual, to the Labor Day weekend. The show used to be held over the Labor Day weekend, but that was many years ago. The show is wonderful, so we’ll continue to exhibit there regardless of the change of dates.

We’re still very much in business between shows, so please don’t hesitate to email or call. I recently listed some of the new items on my website and will list more every week. Click Philip Chasen Antiques to take a look. I will make every effort to actively list new items as often as time permits. I always strive to offer the finest objects for sale on my website and at every show. There are many items for sale, sold items with prices and free lessons about glass and lamps. And remember to keep reading my blog.

Good results for some Tiffany Studios lamps at Sotheby’s New York Important Design sale, May 24, 2018

For the foreseeable future, I will publish once a week on Monday.


Sotheby’s New York held an Important Design auction on May 24, 2018 with total sales of $13,663,250. Included in the sale were 45 lots of glass, candlesticks and lamps by Tiffany Studios — the topic of today’s post. Results were mixed with unexpectedly high prices for some items and low prices for others.

Tifffany Elaborate Peony table lamp, Sotheby’s lot #311

Lot #311, a magnificent Elaborate Peony, was the top lot of the Tiffany selection. It sold for $735,000, including buyer’s premium, against a pre-sale estimate of $400,000 — $600,000. Seemingly this was a good result, but I suspect it would have done much better if the lamp had been sold in the previous December sale where prices were smoking for lamps of this quality.

Tiffany 12-light lily floor lamp, Sotheby’s lot #323

Lot #323 was not a fine example of a Tiffany 12-light lily floor lamp. The finish was bronze doré, in fair condition — not as nice or as desirable as the patina finish. Additionally the lily shades were assembled and not a very good match. It brought the astonishing price of $137,500, including buyer’s premium, against a pre-sale estimate of $30,000 – $50,000. Apparently lily lamps have become hot items of late, including lot #306, a 7-light lily table lamp, which sold for the equally astonishing price of $37,500.

For the complete results of the sale, click here.


No shows until the Baltimore Art, Antique & Jewelry Show at the end of the summer, August 30 – September 2, 2018, as we were forced to give up shows like Denver. Unfortunately the Baltimore show promoter has moved the show one week later than usual, to the Labor Day weekend. The show used to be held over the Labor Day weekend, but that was many years ago. The show is wonderful, so we’ll continue to exhibit there regardless of the change of dates.

We’re still very much in business between shows, so please don’t hesitate to email or call. I recently listed some of the new items on my website and will list more every week. Click Philip Chasen Antiques to take a look. I will make every effort to actively list new items as often as time permits. I always strive to offer the finest objects for sale on my website and at every show. There are many items for sale, sold items with prices and free lessons about glass and lamps. And remember to keep reading my blog.

Gordon “Hank” Hancock has an extensive collection of Tiffany Favrile pastel glass

For the foreseeable future, I will publish once a week on Monday.

Monday’s post will be up by 10 AM EDT.


Gordon Hancock

Gordon “Hank” Hancock is a passionate collector. His specialty is Tiffany Favrile pastel glass from the 1920s. Eve M. Kahn, a reporter for the NY Times, called me to ask about his collection. The following link will take you to her May 8, 2018 NY Times article about him. Hope you enjoy it. Gordon Hancock’s collection


No shows until the Baltimore Art, Antique & Jewelry Show at the end of the summer, August 30 – September 2, 2018, as we were forced to give up shows like Denver. Unfortunately the Baltimore show promoter has moved the show one week later than usual, to the Labor Day weekend. The show used to be held over the Labor Day weekend, but that was many years ago. The show is wonderful, so we’ll continue to exhibit there regardless of the change of dates.

We’re still very much in business between shows, so please don’t hesitate to email or call. I recently listed some of the new items on my website and will list more every week. Click Philip Chasen Antiques to take a look. I will make every effort to actively list new items as often as time permits. I always strive to offer the finest objects for sale on my website and at every show. There are many items for sale, sold items with prices and free lessons about glass and lamps. And remember to keep reading my blog.

Tiffany lamps sold well at Sotheby’s, New York Luxe: Art of Design sale, April 22, 2018

For the foreseeable future I will publish once a week on Mondays.


Sotheby’s New York, held a Luxe: Art of Design sale this past weekend with total sales of $4,991,877. The 584 lots were sold over two days, April 20 and 22, 2018 (which was unusual because most multi-part sales are held on consecutive days). Included in the sale was a small selection of Tiffany lamps and glass — today’s topic.

It’s a good thing I went to preview the auction in person. The two best lamps, that looked wonderful in the photos, didn’t look quite as wonderful in person. Both lot #1367, an Allamanda, and lot #1368, a Tulip, had extensive cracking and restoration.

Tiffany 16″ diameter Tulip table lamp, Sotheby’s lot #1368

Regardless, lot #1368, the 16″ diameter Tulip lamp, sold well above its high estimate of $30,000, realizing $47,500, including buyer’s premium, for the highest price of the Tiffany selection.

Tiffany Allamanda lamp, Sotheby’s lot #1367

Lot #1367, an 18″ diameter Allamanda, sold near its high estimate of $35,000, realizing $42,500, including buyer’s premium — the second highest price of the Tiffany selection. That’s a pretty good price considering the lamp had damage, restoration and a simple base. If the buyer wants to upgrade to a library base, it will cost about $7,500 additional, if someone is willing to take the existing base in a trade.

Tiffany gold doré 10-light lily table lamp, lot #1372

A decent 10-light lily lamp, lot #1372, sold above its high estimate of $20,000, realizing $27,500, including buyer’s premium. The shades were fairly well matched, but the gold doré base had some wear and corrosion.

For the complete results of the sale, click here.


Our next show is now only three weeks away, May 18-20, 2018, when we’ll exhibit at the 2nd edition of the resurrected Chicago Antiques + Art + Design Show at the Chicago Merchandise Mart. It’s a wonderful venue for a show that deserved to be restored from purgatory.

We’re still very much in business between shows, so please don’t hesitate to email or call. I recently listed some of the new items on my website and will list more every week. Click Philip Chasen Antiques to take a look. I will make every effort to actively list new items as often as time permits. I always strive to offer the finest objects for sale on my website and at every show. There are many items for sale, sold items with prices and free lessons about glass and lamps. And remember to keep reading my blog.

The results of Westport Auction’s Tiffany Lighting and more! sale, March 25, 2018

For the foreseeable future I will publish once a week on Mondays.


Westport Auction, Westport, CT, held a Tiffany Lighting and more! sale on March 25, 2018. The sale was mostly property from the estate of the Robinson Brothers, Arthur & Joe, of Harrison, NY. They both dealt in Tiffany Studios’ collections, as well as items removed from Laurelton Hall. The sale included Tiffany shades, parts, pieces and lamps, as well as a nice collection of Steuben and Quezal shades.

Tiffany Moorish chandelier, Westport lot #23

The top lot of the sale was #23, a Moorish chandelier with lily shades. Even though the lily shades were reproduction, it sold within its pre-sale estimate of $10,000 – $30,000, realizing $21,600, including 20% buyer’s premium.

Pair of wall sconces, Westport lot #11

The second highest result was for lot #11, a pair of 3-light wall sconces. Supposedly authentic Tiffany Studios, they were not, in my opinion, nor in the opinions of two other experts. Caveat emptor. If you buy from auction, you take your life in your own hands. They sold for $20,400, including buyer’s premium, against a pre-sale estimate of $8,000 – $12,000. It was one of several reproduction lots in the auction.

Set of six Quezal red decorated shades, Westport lot #136

Some of the art glass shades in the auction were quite rare and desirable, including 12 red decorated Quezal shades that were sold in three lots. It’s difficult to find even one red decorated shade, so a dozen in one sale is quite cool. Lot #136 included six of them. They sold for $9,000, including buyer’s premium, against a pre-sale estimate of $1,200 – $1,800.

For the complete results of the sale, click here.


Our next show is not until May 18-20, 2018, when we’ll exhibit at the 2nd edition of the resurrected Chicago Antiques + Art + Design Show at the Chicago Merchandise Mart. It’s a wonderful venue for a show that deserved to be restored from purgatory.

We’re still very much in business between shows, so please don’t hesitate to email or call. I recently listed some of the new items on my website and will list more every week. Click Philip Chasen Antiques to take a look. I will make every effort to actively list new items as often as time permits. I always strive to offer the finest objects for sale on my website and at every show. There are many items for sale, sold items with prices and free lessons about glass and lamps. And remember to keep reading my blog.

I tried to buy a couple of interesting items at auction…

For the foreseeable future I will publish once a week on Mondays.


I recently tried to buy a couple of nice items at auction. I hoped they would fall through the cracks so I could buy them for resale. But alas, they did not. They sold for retail prices, so I wasn’t the buyer.

Tiffany Studios Pine Needle clock, Fontaine lot #2

The first item was a very nice Tiffany Studios clock in the Pine Needle pattern. It sold at Fontaine Auction Gallery’s Antiques & Fine Art auction in Pittsfield, Massachusetts on March 24, 2018 as lot #2. Against a low estimate, it realized $6,655, including buyer’s premium. That’s a fine price for a retail buyer, but not a dealer, so I wasn’t the buyer.

For the complete results of Fontaine’s sale, click here.

Quezal lily shade sconce, similar in design to Bonham’s chandelier pictured below

Quezal chandelier, Bonham’s lot #221

The second item sold as lot #221 in Bonham’s Elegant Home sale in Los Angeles on March 26, 2018. It was a wonderful original Quezal chandelier with nine matching shades. I’ve seen a similar, smaller model before, in the form of a wall sconce with lily shades, but never the matching chandelier. Bonham’s lot was an original mashup of four sconces made into one huge chandelier. How cool is that! It sold for $7,500, including buyer’s premium, against a very low estimate of $1,000 – $1,500. Again, the price was just fine for a retail buyer, but not a dealer, so I didn’t buy it.

For the complete results of Bonham’s sale, click here.


Our next show is not until May 18-20, 2018, when we’ll exhibit at the 2nd edition of the resurrected Chicago Antiques + Art + Design Show at the Chicago Merchandise Mart. It’s a wonderful venue for a show that deserved to be restored from purgatory.

We’re still very much in business between shows, so please don’t hesitate to email or call. I recently listed some of the new items on my website and will list more every week. Click Philip Chasen Antiques to take a look. I will make every effort to actively list new items as often as time permits. I always strive to offer the finest objects for sale on my website and at every show. There are many items for sale, sold items with prices and free lessons about glass and lamps. And remember to keep reading my blog.

Tiffany Studios lamps and objects sold well at Cottone’s Fine Art, Antiques & Clocks sale, Mar 24, 2018

For the foreseeable future I will publish once a week on Mondays.


Cottone Auctions held a Fine Art, Antiques & Clocks on Mar 24, 2018. Included in the sale was a nice selection of Tiffany Studios leaded lamps and objects.

Tiffany Studios Bamboo floor lamp, Cottone lot #330

The top lot of the Tiffany Studios group was #330, a Bamboo floor lamp. It sold above its estimated range of $100,000 – $150,000, realizing $241,900, including buyer’s premium.

Tiffany Moorish chain mail hall lantern, Cottone lot #331

Lot #331 was a rare and interesting Tiffany Studios Moorish hall lantern with chain mail decoration. It sold well above its estimate of $7,000 – $10,000, realizing $23,010, including buyer’s premium.

Tiffany Butterfly inkwell, Cottone lot #339

The top result for Tiffany Studios objects was lot #339, a rare Tiffany Studios Butterfly inkwell, with an original iridescent blue Favrile insert and cap. It also sold well above its estimate of $7,000 – $10,000, realizing $18,500, including buyer’s premium.

For the complete results of the sale, click here. You will have to enter your email address to see the prices realized.


Our next show is not until May 18-20, 2018, when we’ll exhibit at the 2nd edition of the resurrected Chicago Antiques + Art + Design Show at the Chicago Merchandise Mart. It’s a wonderful venue for a show that deserved to be restored from purgatory.

We’re still very much in business between shows, so please don’t hesitate to email or call. I recently listed some of the new items on my website and will list more every week. Click Philip Chasen Antiques to take a look. I will make every effort to actively list new items as often as time permits. I always strive to offer the finest objects for sale on my website and at every show. There are many items for sale, sold items with prices and free lessons about glass and lamps. And remember to keep reading my blog.

How to clean antique glass including Tiffany Studios Favrile glass and French cameo glass

Monday’s post will be up by noon.

Please note that I am permanently changing Thursday’s post day to Friday.

My goal is to publish new posts twice a week — Mondays and Fridays. However, if you don’t see a new post on Friday, it’s because I was too busy, so please look for a new one the following Monday.


Every once in a while, I will re-post one of my most widely viewed blogs of the last nine years. This is one of the top three, originally written on September 14, 2009.

Having sold many thousands of antique glass vases over the years, I’ve learned a lot about how to clean them from trial and error. It also doesn’t hurt to have a Master’s Degree in Chemistry.

Most people are quite timid about using chemicals on glass. They’re afraid they’ll ruin their vases by removing the decoration or somehow damaging them. There are very few times this would actually be true. Cold-painted decoration on a vase could be ruined by the use of some chemicals but Tiffany Favrile vases and French cameo vases by Daum, Gallé, and others have no cold-painting, so all of the steps I describe below are appropriate. If you suspect that your vase has cold-painting on it, test a small area with one of the cleaners below, using a Q-tip. If any color comes off, stop and use only the mildest cleaners.

Eco-House citrous thinner

Eco-House citrous thinner

The first step is to remove any sticky substances, which will dissolve in organic solvents such as mineral spirits or acetone (nail polish remover). There are also some good  commercial products available, such as Goo Gone, available at stores like Home Depot or Office Depot, or online. Another product I like is citrous thinner, made from orange peels. It smells a lot better than the other solvents and is quite effective. Click here if you’d like to order it.

Start by looking for anything sticky with your eyes and your fingers. Put very little solvent on a Q-tip, rag or paper towel. Rub the affected area until the dirt or stickiness is gone. Mineral spirits is a gentler solvent than acetone, so try it first. Mineral spirits is especially good for removing the gum from old labels. Use acetone second, if you need a stronger solvent. These various solvents will also remove crayon, sap, or any similar substance.

Easy-Off Fume Free

Easy-Off Fume Free

Next we’re ready for aqueous cleaning. I suggest you do this in a sink. Most of the cleaners will make your vase slippery, so be very careful not to lose control and break it. The gentlest cleaners are dishwashing liquid or Windex. I like to use them with an old toothbrush. Scrub the vase with the first cleaner and see if the dirt comes off. If it’s stubborn, you can proceed to the next level of cleaning power with commercial products like Scrubbing Bubbles or Dow Bathroom Cleaner. Repeat the process. Spray the vase, let it sit for a few minutes and clean again with a toothbrush or similar brush. If that’s not strong enough, you can go to the highest level of cleaning power — Easy-Off, of which there are two types available. The blue can, labeled “Fume Free” is the one I recommend. (It’s not really fume free, but it’s not too bad.) It’s powerful and should remove any leftover dirt. Finally, rinse your vase thoroughly in plain water and dry completely with an old towel. If it’s safe, let it dry upside down. It’s a good idea to use gloves to protect your hands, an apron to protect your clothing and glasses to protect your eyes. Easy-Off in the yellow can is lye (sodium hydroxide). It’s very powerful. It will eat through the dirt nicely, but also through your clothes and skin, and can severely damage your eyes. Immediately flush with plain water if you have an accident. You’ll know you’ve gotten it on your skin if it feels slimy.

To clean the inside of your vase, you’ll need various brushes to reach hard-to-get-to areas. Just use one of the sprays above, let sit, and brush away. Justman Brush Company sells hundreds of different brushes.

A sick vase whose glass has been etched on the interior

Vases that have been filled with water can present bigger problems, such as scratches on the interior. The second and more serious problem is sick glass, which includes etching of the glass interior or the depositing of lime or other minerals. Etching will appear as frosting, while depositing will appear as white crust. Cleaners will not effectively fix these problems. The only real way to treat problems of this sort is to go to an expert who can “tumble” the vase to resurface the interior. It’s basically the same as sandpapering the entire interior — great for a transparent vase, but not as good for a vase that has a finish on the interior, like an iridescent vase. Use this link for Paul Nulton, who used to do this kind of work, but may or may not still be in business.

Sometimes vases were kept in homes where the owners smoked or had smoky fireplaces or stoves. The vase will probably appear to have dingy color. With a minimum amount of effort, the results can be quite gratifying, revealing unexpected bright and beautiful colors!

Good luck! (Have a good story to tell me? Please send it to philip@chasenantiques.com)


Our next show is not until May 18-20, 2018, when we’ll exhibit at the 2nd edition of the resurrected Chicago Antiques + Art + Design Show at the Chicago Merchandise Mart. It’s a wonderful venue for a show that deserved to be restored from purgatory.

We’re still very much in business between shows, so please don’t hesitate to email or call. I recently listed some of the new items on my website and will list more every week. Click Philip Chasen Antiques to take a look. I will make every effort to actively list new items as often as time permits. I always strive to offer the finest objects for sale on my website and at every show. There are many items for sale, sold items with prices and free lessons about glass and lamps. And remember to keep reading my blog.